Futhark 1 (Elder Runes)
Above we have the Elder or 24 Futhark Runes from Norwegian areas. This is considered to be the oldest Runic alphabet known and is considered to have been used for divination purposes. Tacitus wrote about observing how the Vikings would cut a limb from an apple tree, cut it into staves and then engrave Runes onto each one then cast them for oracles. Some believe this Futhark was used for sorcery and magic purposes as well though there are no records detailing which Futhark was used for sorcery and magic.
Futhark 2 (Younger Runes)
The above is the set of Runes found in Scandinavian countries like Iceland and Sweden also believed to be used for divination purposes as well. Thought to be a reduction of the Elder Futhark for writing and according to some scholars, the Germanic language underwent serious changes during this time frame as well. It is believed this happened around the end of the 8th century c.e.
Futhark 3 (Armenan Runes)
This set of Runes is a combination of both pre-existing Runic script as well as the glyphs discovered by Guido von List at the turn of the 20th century based on his work with the Havamal Rune charms. if you take time to read the Havamal, you will see how he came to these conclusions for yourself though ultimately you may not agree with his findings. This Futhark was invented for sorcery work by von List and is used exclusively by the Germanic Armenan society to this day.
Futhark 4 (Anglo-Saxon Runes)
This is the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc sometimes referred to as the Frisian Runes. It varies between 28 to 33 Runes depending on source and you will notice it appears to be mainly invented for writing purposes albeit some use it for divination as they feel the extra Runes give you more choices and possibilities for clearer answers.
Rune Charms, Bind Runes & Helms of Awe
These Runes are examples of Runic sorcery being put into practice by combining select Runes into diagrams or pictographs useful for magic and sorcery purposes. Some have been found in grimoires such as the Iceland Galdrabok while others have been found on helmets (thus helms of awe) as shield protectors for warriors and others are known as Bind-Runes where you combine two or more Runes to form a desired effect such as those found on the bottom row. They come from many eras of Germanic and Viking era times all throughout Germania and Scandinavia.
Above you will find an example of how Runes were used in writing in ancient times. It took a craftsman with skill and patience to make the item then carve the Runes onto it correctly. Once in a while we find items like this with minor inscriptions such as "Ragnar made this".
Above we find a Viking Lunar calendar circa 1100 c.e.
Above are examples of Viking Rune Stones sometimes used as cemetery markers for graves. Sometimes we find the Runic artist bound the Runes into a serpent's length while other times he would just engrave them in rows and still in others the Runes may follow the curvature of the stone itself. Much depended on the engraver and medium itself he was working with. These can be found all over Germany & Scandinavia.